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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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GLACIERS OF ALASKA                                         17
respectively, maintain good-sized glaciers. There are, however, minor glaciers in the mountains proper, including the several small ice tongues that drain to Lake Clark,1 and doubtless others; and there may be many more, as the cirques in the mountains east of Hiamna Lake2 testify.
A Coast Survey chart shows a large tidal glacier in Redoubt Bay8 half way up the west side of Cook Inlet, but no description of it has been printed. West of Mt. Redoubt, which doubtless has other glaciers, there are five glaciers upon Mt. Hiamna, several of which were seen by Dall in 1895 * and also observed by the junior author in 1904. These include one a mile wide, at the head of Tuxedni or Snug Harbor, which was stagnant and moraine-covered in 1904, two on its east slopes, one a double glacier with a red moraine, the other with trees growing upon it, another near Chinitna Bay, and still another whose presence was known by its milky glacier stream; there are also several glacierlets on the St. Augustine volcano.
Glaciers of the Alaska Peninsula. Several glaciers descend from the east slope of Mt. Douglas, at least six of which were seen by Dall and Becker in 1895.B The Coast Survey chartfl shows some of the glaciers upon the slopes of Mt. Douglas. In 1904 the junior author observed several of the glaciers in this part of the Alaska Peninsula. There were three large glaciers on the north slope of Mt. Douglas, 11,000 feet, the easternmost of which then ended a mile from sea level at an elevation of 150 feet. Six other large glaciers were seen upon the east and southeast slopes of Mt. Douglas, the large one just west of Cape Douglas having a bulb five or six miles wide and projecting 8 or 4 miles from the coast, although not discharging icebergs in 1904 because mantled with moraine at the terminus. Southwest of Cape Douglas is a large glacier with a remarkably sinuous medial moraine. The large glacier of Hello Bay was seen from a distance. All these glaciers seemed to be retreating in 1904. Pavlof Mountain has a large glacier seen in 1908 by At-wood,7 who has also described the former glaciation of the adjacent islands and mainland.
On Katmai Pass, across the Aleutian Mountains of Alaska Peninsula, three or more small glaciers were seen by Spurr in 1900,8 the larger ones being on the northwest side. South of Kialagvik Bay are three glaciers shown by Davidson9 to be upon a map made by Vasilieff in 1831-1882 and seen by Dall in 189510 and by the junior author from the steamer in September, 1904.
Glaciers of the Aleutian Islands. A few of the snow-capped volcanoes of the Aleutians are known to have radiating glaciers. There are ice tongues upon the slopes of Mts. Shishaldin, Round Top, and Isanof or Isanotski on Unimak Island, showing clearly in the photographs published by Westdahl.u The glacier of Mt. Makushin on the island of
» Osgood, W. H., Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XV, 1904, pp. 326-381.
•Martin, G. C. and Katz, F. J., Bull. 485, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1912, pp. 14-15, 82-94. i Coajjt and Geod. Survey, Chart 8502, 1908. « Dall, W. H., Journ. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. -2LX.V11JL, 1896, p. 11.
«Dall, W. H., Journ. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. XXVEH, 1896, pp. 8-9; 18th Ann. Rept., U. S. Geol. Survey, Part HI, 1898, PI. XIV.
• U. S. Coast and Geod. Survey, Chart 8502,1908.
»Atwood, W. W., Bull. 467, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1911, pp. 18, 84-91.
• Spurr, J. E., 20th Ann. Kept, TJ. S. Geol. Survey, Part VH, 1900, pp. 254-255, and Map 11.
• Davidson, George, Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc., Pacific, Vol. HE, 1904, pp. 12-18, and Maps I and II. ao Dall, W. H., Journ. Amer. Geog. Soc., Vol. .XJtVJLU, 1896, p. 17.
•1 Westdahl, F., Nat. Geog. Mag., Vol. XIV, 1908, pp. 91-99. 2